The application of enzymes to transform materials, especially biologically sourced materials, provides many benefits. The processes can utilise lower energy, be inherently safer, and produce less toxic waste streams than traditional manufacturing. They also can be highly selective reducing the costs of isolating the desired products. In addition, enzymes can be excellent and specific catalysts providing high product yields, minimise required reaction volumes and reagents, and when immobilised can be multiply re-used for cost effectiveness. The research in this theme will improve enzyme selectivity, enzyme activity and enzyme immobilisation methods to enable efficient and effective use of enzymes both in the processing of biomass and for reaction catalysis.